SQL standads overview

SQL, the Structured Query Language for relational datanbases, was originally published in 1986 and was standardized in several steps. The following explanations are sorted by standards and its parts/improvements.
  • 1989 - SQL-89, standard SQL, SQL-1
  • 1992 - SQL-92, SQL-2 (ANSI specification X3.135-1992)
      * ANSI X3.135-1992 Database Language SQL (the 1992 standard)
      * ANSI/ISO/IEC 9075-1992 Technical Corrigendum 1 (errata)
      * ANSI/ISO/IEC 9075-3-1995: Part 3: Call-Level Interface (CLI)
    • DDL (Data Description Language): BLOB's, VARCHAR, DATE, TIME, TIMESTAMP, BOOLEAN
    • DML (Data Manipulation Language): OUTER/INNER-Joins, operations on row sets (UNION, CROSS)
    • Transactions: set transaction
    • Cursors:
    • Bindings: Dynamic SQL
    • Domain checks and constraints: DEFAULT, CHECK (beginning of domain concept), basic concepts for refferential integrity (references for primary keys and key candidates)
    • Connections: connect, set connection
    • Catalogs: system tables or system catalog
    • Errors & diagnostics: SQLSTATE, GET DIAGNOSTICS
    • Misc.: cursors, ALTER (altering and dropping), CAST (data type converions)

  • 1999 - SQL-99, SQL-3 (ISO/IEC 9075:1999(E) Information technology - Database languages - SQL)
      * INCITS/ISO/IEC 9075-1 01-Jan-1999 SQL-Part 1: Framework (SQL/Framework)
      * INCITS/ISO/IEC 9075-2 01-Jan-1999 SQL-Part 2: Foundation (SQL/Foundation)
      * INCITS/ISO/IEC 9075-3 01-Oct-1999 SQL-Part 3: Call Level Interface (SQL/CLI)
      * INCITS/ISO/IEC 9075-4 01-Jan-1999 SQL-Part 4: Persistent Stored Modules (SQL/PSM)
      * INCITS/ISO/IEC 9075-5 01-Jan-1999 SQL-Part 5: Host Language Bindings (SQL/Bindings)
    • Framework:
    • DDL (Data Definition Language): Time-Series-Data, User defined types (UDT), roles
    • DML (Data Manipulation Language): recursive queries
      Intermediate Level - CASCADE DELETE
      Full Level - CASCADE UPDATE
    • Transactions:
    • Cursors:
    • Bindings: Precompilers, embedded and dynamic SQL, OLB (Object Language Bindings) with SQLJ for Java
    • Domain checks and constraints: triggers
      Full Level - Subquery in CHECK, Assertions, DEFERRED
    • CLI (Callable Level Interface): ODBC, JDBC, OLE DB
    • PSM (Persistent Storage Modules): stored Procedures
    • Mediums: Management of external data

    • 2003 - SQL-2003
      • DDL (Data Description Language): MULTISET, generated attibutes (derived from other attributes), identity attributes (automatic generation of primary keys)
      • DML (Data Manipulation Language): table functions (table generation in functions), TABLESAMPLE, MERGE command
      • SQL/Schemata: information and definition schemas
      • SQL/XML: XML-related Specifications
      • SQL/MED (Mediums): access to external data

    • Categories: