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SQL standads overview

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SQL, the Structured Query Language for relational datanbases, was originally published in 1986 and was standardized in several steps. The following explanations are sorted by standards and its parts/improvements.
  • 1989 - SQL-89, standard SQL, SQL-1
  • 1992 - SQL-92, SQL-2 (ANSI specification X3.135-1992)
      * ANSI X3.135-1992 Database Language SQL (the 1992 standard)
      * ANSI/ISO/IEC 9075-1992 Technical Corrigendum 1 (errata)
      * ANSI/ISO/IEC 9075-3-1995: Part 3: Call-Level Interface (CLI)
    • DDL (Data Description Language): BLOB's, VARCHAR, DATE, TIME, TIMESTAMP, BOOLEAN
    • DML (Data Manipulation Language): OUTER/INNER-Joins, operations on row sets (UNION, CROSS)
    • Transactions: set transaction
    • Cursors:
    • Bindings: Dynamic SQL
    • Domain checks and constraints: DEFAULT, CHECK (beginning of domain concept), basic concepts for refferential integrity (references for primary keys and key candidates)
    • Connections: connect, set connection
    • Catalogs: system tables or system catalog
    • Errors & diagnostics: SQLSTATE, GET DIAGNOSTICS
    • Misc.: cursors, ALTER (altering and dropping), CAST (data type converions)

  • 1999 - SQL-99, SQL-3 (ISO/IEC 9075:1999(E) Information technology - Database languages - SQL)
      * INCITS/ISO/IEC 9075-1 01-Jan-1999 SQL-Part 1: Framework (SQL/Framework)
      * INCITS/ISO/IEC 9075-2 01-Jan-1999 SQL-Part 2: Foundation (SQL/Foundation)
      * INCITS/ISO/IEC 9075-3 01-Oct-1999 SQL-Part 3: Call Level Interface (SQL/CLI)
      * INCITS/ISO/IEC 9075-4 01-Jan-1999 SQL-Part 4: Persistent Stored Modules (SQL/PSM)
      * INCITS/ISO/IEC 9075-5 01-Jan-1999 SQL-Part 5: Host Language Bindings (SQL/Bindings)
    • Framework:
    • DDL (Data Definition Language): Time-Series-Data, User defined types (UDT), roles
    • DML (Data Manipulation Language): recursive queries
      Intermediate Level - CASCADE DELETE
      Full Level - CASCADE UPDATE
    • Transactions:
    • Cursors:
    • Bindings: Precompilers, embedded and dynamic SQL, OLB (Object Language Bindings) with SQLJ for Java
    • Domain checks and constraints: triggers
      Full Level - Subquery in CHECK, Assertions, DEFERRED
    • CLI (Callable Level Interface): ODBC, JDBC, OLE DB
    • PSM (Persistent Storage Modules): stored Procedures
    • Mediums: Management of external data

    • 2003 - SQL-2003
      • DDL (Data Description Language): MULTISET, generated attibutes (derived from other attributes), identity attributes (automatic generation of primary keys)
      • DML (Data Manipulation Language): table functions (table generation in functions), TABLESAMPLE, MERGE command
      • SQL/Schemata: information and definition schemas
      • SQL/XML: XML-related Specifications
      • SQL/MED (Mediums): access to external data

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